A noble carried the letter to the Guru at Kiratpur, who commented,"Behold, with one hand man breaks flowers, and with the other he offers them, but flowers perfume both hands alike. In view of these circumstances Dara had great regard for him. He then placed a coco-nut and five paise before him, circumambulated him three times and had a tilak or patch put on his forehead. The Emperor sent him poisoned robes which he wore but was not hurt. His hearers abandoned the worship of cemeteries and cremation grounds, and embraced the simple worship of God. It is said that Aurangzeb administered tiger’s whiskers in a dainty dish to Dara Shikoh who became dangerously ill as a consequence. He had some influence in the court of Emperor Aurangzeb and was in communication with the Guru’s enemies. Marriage - Anandpur on 23, Har, SV year This prophecy has been fulfilled and their descendants owned twenty-two villages called the Bahia. Shah Jahan had an order against the Hindu temples while Sikh temples were exempt from such an order. Guru Har Rai was the son of Baba Gurdita and Mata Nihal Kaur (also known as Mata Ananti Ji). He was the second son of Guru Har Rai Sahib and Mata Krishan Kaur Ji (Sulakhni Ji). Having made his position secure on the throne of Delhi, Aurangzeb embarked on his religious crusade against the Hindus. This post is about Guru Har Rai and his unique leadership of the Sikhs during the turbulence of the 17th century in India. I will never see you again on account of your infidelity?". Guru Har Gobind nominated Har Rai, younger brother of Dhir Mal, as his successor before he departed for the heavenly abode on March 3, 1644. The sheet did not give way and Ram Rai was miraculously preserved. Summoned by the new emperor to explain his relationship with Dārā Shikōh, Har Rai sent his son Ram Rai to represent him. At 10, he took cattle for gazing. Guru Hargobind Ji 19 June 1595 25 May 1606 28 February 1644 (aged 48) Guru Arjan Dev Ji Mata Ganga-- 7 Guru Har Rai Ji 16 January 1630 3 March 1644 6 October 1661 (aged 31) Baba Gurditta Mata Nihal -- 8 Guru Harkrishan While Dara Shikoh was on his way to Lahore, the Guru happened to be in Goindwal. Aurangzeb soon appeared at the head of his own and Murad’s armies and ensued a determined battle. The Sikhs of Delhi immediately sent an envoy to Kiratpur and informed the Guru of the pomp and honor with which Ram Rai had been received in Delhi, and detailed miracles he had exhibited. So in order to please the Emperor, Ram Rai replied," Your Majesty, Guru Nanak wrote, ‘Mitti beiman ki’, that is the ashes of the faithless, not of the Musalmans, fall into the potter’s clod. Guru Har Raihad an older brother; Dhir Mal. They both met. These regions provided good opportunities for the Sikh faith to sprout. Guru Har Rai made some notable conversions among the landed families of the Punjab who were, at that time, considered the natural leaders of the people. There he drove a bamboo shoot into the ground in memory of his visit; and it still survives as a stately tree. Historical records and the Sikh tradition are unclear whether Guru Arjan was executed by drowning or died during torture. Guru Har Gobind had five sons and one daughter. Omissions? In one place he has said. On the advice of his grandfather, Guru Har Gobind, he kept twenty-two hundred mounted soldiers. When Kala and his own sons appeared before the Guru, he told him that he acted in obedience to his wife. He used Baba Farid’s quotation frequently: "All men’s hearts are jewels; to distress them is not at all good; If thou desire the Beloved, distress no one’s heart.". For your information, once Guru Har Rai Sahib ji was returning from Malwa and Doaba area, Mohammad Yarbeg Khan attacked his convoy with a thousand armed soldiers. He enlisted twenty thousand men in his army within days at Lahore. After seventy such miracles were shown, Aurangzeb was almost convinced of Ram Rai’s powers and became friendly to him. In the evening the Guru used to hold his court, listen to hymns sung by his choir, and then give divine instructions. Their ambition was not satisfied and each one of them was eagerly seeking to become Emperor, and for that purpose they amassed wealth and armies in their respective regions. After Aurangzeb questioned him about a line of text in the Adi Granth (the Sikh scripture) that he had found disparaging to Muslims, Ram Rai attempted to appease the emperor by suggesting that the line had been improperly transcribed. The emperor, whole heartily thanked and wanted to grant him some "Jagir", but Guru Sahib never accepted. He fled from the field and ultimately was captured through a Pathan who betrayed him. ‘The ashes of the Mohammadan fall into the potter’s clod; Vessels and bricks are fashioned from them; they cry out as they burn.’ (Translation of the above), What is the meaning of this?". Chaar Sahibzade The word "Sahibzada" means "son" in Punjabi and is a term commonly used to refer to the 4 sons of Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth Sikh Guru. The Guru was much distressed at the insult and remarked that no mortal could change the words of Guru Nanak and that ‘the mouth which had dared to do so should never be seen by me.’ The Guru decided that Ram Rai was not fit for Guruship. It is said that Ram Rai performed seventy miracles. Har Rai, seventh Sikh Guru. ", After Ram Rai had resided in Delhi for some time, he decided to go to Kiratpur and try to convince his father to reverse his decision regarding him. The arrival of Guru Har Krishan and even Guru … The Sikhs asked,"O true king, yesterday you ate bread on horseback from the hands of an old woman whom you did not know. His food was very simple, he did not desire dainty dishes. Famous Muslim saint Mian Mir was Dara’s priest from whom he had heard Guru’s praises. The Emperor Shah Jahan had four sons, Dara Shikoh, Shuja Mohammad, Aurangzeb, and Murad Bakhsh. Dhir Mal turned out disloyal and disobedient. The Guru took some of the animals he had obtained from the chase, freed them and protected them in a zoological garden, which he had made for the recreation of his followers. One day as a child, while passing through a garden, his loose flowing robes damaged some flowers and scattered their petals on the ground. Guru Arjan had practically completed the organization of his followers on peaceful lines and under Guru Har Gobind, Sikhism had added into itself an army. He often went on hunting but never killed any animal. After being arrested and imprisoned, Guru Gobind Rai's father, Guru Teg Bahadar, is beheaded by order of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. Only he who is ready to devote his life thereto is worthy of it. The guru of this sudden attack, Har Rai Sahib ji, along with sikh warriors, gave a lot of bravery and bravery. However Guru Ji replied, That was merely a push of that moment, will of God at that time. Whatever valuable offerings were made to him, he used to spend on his guests. The Guru replied," The woman with great devotion and faith prepared food for me out of what she had earned from the sweat of her brow. Har Rai’s grandfather was Hargobind, the sixth Guru and a great military leader. The Qazis’ asked Ram Rai," Ram Rai, your Guru Nanak has written against the Muslim religion. When the Emperor was informed that the Guru had not come himself but sent his son, he thought that if his object in trying the Guru was not fulfilled by his son, he would send for the Guru himself. Dara Shikoh dispatched Raja Jai Singh against Shujah Mohammad and sent Raja Jaswant Singh of Jodhpur to Dakhan. From the eldest, Tilok Singh, the Rajas of Nabha and Jind were the descendants. my Beloved Guru Nanak, The Great Jagat Guru, The Enlightener of the World, Thou assumed a luminous form of Guru Gobind Singh Ji as the Tenth Master. The Guru replied,"Ram Rai, you have disobeyed my order and sinned. FN-1: It is also said that Ram Rai told Aurangzeb that Guru Nanak did not mean the ashes of Musalman but he ctually meant that of the ‘beiman’, the faithless. Guru Har Rai was very compassionate towards animals. ‘Mitti Musalman ki peirei paee kumiar; Ghar bhandei itan kia, jaldi karei pukar.’. You can explore these scriptures page by page, by chapter index or search for a keyword. In fact, he used to capture sick and injured animals and place them in a zoo that he had founded. From there he went to Malwa and visited the tank near Nathana where Guru Har Gobind had fought. His life was very short, only 31 years old. See actions taken by the people who manage and post Address Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Wives: ***Jito the daughter of Hari Jas of Lahore. They were of the opinion that if a chebulic myrobalan weighing fourteen chitanks (14/16th of a pound) and a clove weighing one masha could be administered to the patient, he would be restored to health. Aurangzeb was very clever, cunning and ambitious, and aimed at succeeding to the throne. On the advice of his courtiers the Emperor found it necessary to humble himself before the Guru, and accordingly addressed him the following letter: "Your predecessor, the holy Baba Nanak granted sovereignty to Emperor Babar, the founder of my, dynasty; Guru Angad was exceedingly well disposed to his son, Emperor Humayun; and Guru Amar, Das removed many difficulties from my grandfather Akbar’s path. Today we have prepared the food for you; no impurity is attached to it, yet you reject it. The Guru is, therefore, to return good for evil." Har Rai traveled in the Malwa area, where he converted the local Brar tribes to Sikhism. Although the axe cuts the sandal-tree, yet the sandal perfumes the axe. He refused, was tortured and executed in 1606 CE. There is no end to their misery.” There is no end to their misery.” “Gobind Rai asked, "What is … The text has been corrupted by ignorant persons and Your Majesty’s religion and mine defamed. He confessed that he had suffered for his sins and desired forgiveness. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). AAP was born in Mata Nihal Kaur's Kukhon, Sish Mahal, Kirtpur, District Roop Nagar. Dara’s life was saved with the medicine from the Guru. These three were known as the Phul ke Raje, or Phulkian chiefs. Bhagat Bhagwan was appointed as the incharge of the preaching work in the east, where he along ith his followers, established as many as 360 gaddies (centers) to carry on these efforts. When the children arrived in his presence, Phul who was five years old, struck with his hands his own naked belly like a drum. After India became independent in 1947, these states along with other hundreds of states in the county, were annexed by the Government of India. Visit World Gurudwaras, SearchGurbani brings to you a unique and comprehensive approach to explore and experience the word of God. The life of Dara Shikoh was saved from the cruel jaws of death. Guru Hargobind died at Kiratpur Rupnagar, Punjab, on 28 February 1644, but before his death, he rejected his eldest grandson Dhir Mal's politics, and nominated Guru Har Rai (Dhir Mal's younger brother) instead to succeed him as the Guru. When asked for the reason, Kala explained that he was hungry and wanted something to eat. On this account the food was very pure, and I partook of it. While on his death bed, Guru Har Krishan was asked who would be his successor to which he simply uttered the words ‘Baba’ and ‘Bakala,’ which implied that the next Guru would be found in Bakala. He seated his younger son, Har Kishen who was only five years old, on Guru Nanak’s throne. He contracted smallpox in 1664 and died before reaching his eighth birthday. The eldest son was Baba Gurditta who had two sons, Dhir Mal and Har Rai. The rare medicine needed for his ailment was nowhere available. Guru Har Rai learned the medicinal properties of herbs. It is not what man eats that pleases God, it is man’s devotion that is acceptable to Him.". Guru Arjan was arrested under the orders of the Mughal Emperor Jahangir and asked to convert to Islam. Shortly before his death, the Guru named his five-year-old son, Hari Krishen, as his successor instead of Ram Rai. He tended to injuries of animals which he found wounded He came personally to the Guru Sahib and requested for the medicine. How can you aspire to become a holy man? For this I was not to blame. Sri Guru Har Rai Sahib was the son of Guru Hargobind Sahib and son of Baba Gurdita Ji. All the Mohammadan priests were pleased with this reply. THE GURU, HIS SON RAM RAI AND MUGHAL EMPEROR: The Emperor, Shah Jahan, kept his eldest son Dara Shikoh near him. The Emperor then conferred a mark of favor on Ram Rai and dissolved the assembly. Ram Rai thus did not alter the original verse but only changed the meaning of it. The pattern was repeated when Guru Har Rai chose his second son as his successor instead of his eldest son. The faces of the faithless and not of the Musalmans, shall be blackened in both worlds." Aurangzeb succeeded in capturing Dara’s several nobles. I regret that the same friendly, relations did not subsist between Guru Har Gobind and myself, and that misunderstandings were, caused by the interference of strangers. The steeds of his escendants shall drink water as far as the Jamna river; they shall have sovereignty for many generations and be honored in proportion as they serve the Guru." The woman, throbbing with joy, brought out some coarse bread which he partook on horseback, without washing his hands, and relished it very much. Next day the Sikhs prepared dainty dishes with great attention to cleanliness and offered them to the Guru at the same hour. Aurangzeb came to Agra and imprisoned his father and his brother Murad, and then proceeded to Delhi. AND The ‘Gurgadhi Divas’ (initiation ceremony of becoming the next Sikh Guru), of the ‘8th Sikh Guru’ - ‘Sri Guru Harkrishan Sahib Ji’. Later their descendents formed the princely states of Patiala and Nabha. My son Dara Shikoh is now very, ill. His remedy is in your hands. The younger pair, called the “Chotta Sahibzade” were martyred together The Emperor searched for these articles everywhere in his empire but in vain. Dara, the elder son of Emperor Shah Jehan (r. 1627-1658 AD) fell ill. Inspite of the best efforts of Hakims, he could not be cured. Har Rai was eight years old when his father passed away. His death occurred in kartarpur. He pitched his camp near Kiratpur and wrote to his father for permission to visit him. If you give the myrobalan and the clove which are available in your, store, and add to them your prayers, you will confer an abiding favor on me.". He thought that as long as he had its possession, the Sikhs would look upon him as their religious leader and thus as mentioned in the last chapter, Dhir Mal refused Guru’s invitation to come to Kiratpur on his father’s death. Guru Har Rai Ji also visited Lahore, Sialkot, Pathankot, Samba, Ramgarh and many places of Jammu and Kashmir region. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Guru Har Rai Sahib Ji (16 January 1630-20 October 1661) prestigious as the seventh Nanak, was the seventh among the ten gurus of Sikhism. Sri Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji, before his departure for heavenly abode, nominated his grand son, Har Rai Ji at the tender age of 14, as his successor (Seventh Nanak), on 3rd March, 1644. The Sikh devotees were inconsolable at the untimely death of Guru Har Har Krishan (Kishan) the youngest son of Guru Har Rai Sodhi, and had a brother, Ram Rai, nine years his senior, and a sister, Sarup Kaur, four years older. In the afternoon he used to go to chase. He confirmed," The Guruship is like a tigress’s milk which can only be contained in a golden cup. Love and devotion of Guru Angad is responded and acknowledged by the Lord of Love, Guru Nanak, in a manner never witnessed by the world before.Spiritually He had already crowned Guru Angad as the Lord of the Universe, as his worthy successor but now He physically also reappears with His own luminous form and personality in the form of Guru Angad Dev Ji. Apart from laying emphasis on the free kitchen and religious congregation and faith in the Adi Granth, Guru Har Rai undertook extensive tours in Malwa and Doaba regions of the Punjab. The Guru is hungry for love and not for dainty dishes. Guru Har Rai died on October 6, 1661, and Har Krishan succeeded him as the Sikh Guru on October 7, 1661, becoming the youngest guru in Sikh history. It has the Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji, Amrit Kirtan Gutka, Bhai Gurdaas Vaaran, Sri Dasam Granth Sahib and Kabit Bhai Gurdas. The Emperor was shown the sight of Mecca while sitting in Delhi. He was born in Punjab, Mughal Empire (now India). Corrections? What type of assistance Dara asked or the Guru gave to Dara, is a big question? Just before his death at age 31, Guru Har Rai passed the Gaddi of Nanak on to his younger son, the five-year-old – Guru Har Krishan. This food which you have prepared with attention to ancient ceremonial is not pleasing to me." In the matter of love for God, no rule is recognized. He sent the necessary medicine which was administered to Dara Shikoh. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. 7,566 talking about this. The Guru, having been convinced of the deterioration of Masand system, evolved Bakhshishs or missionary centers. Instead he sent his eldest son Ram Rai to Delhi instructing him to rely on the divine ower of the Gurus, not in any way recede from the principles of his religion, and in all his words and actions to fix his thought on God, everything would prove successful. Phul had six sons. Guru Ji gave him the rare medicinne required for the treatment and also sent a pearl, which was to be ground into fine powder and taken with the medicine. Then came the last question. He was brought to Delhi and was executed. After that he always walked with his skirts tucked up, and resolved never to harm anything in the world. He had everything but he lacked a brave heart to fight in the battle-field. Bhai Aru, Sewa Das, Naik Das, Durga Chand and Suthra Shah were the important priests of the Guru’s times who did missionary work in Kashmir. When Shah Jahan became ill and showed no signs of recovery, a war of succession broke out. He maintained the sizable order of standing troops that his grandfather had amassed but consistently sought peaceful relations with the reigning Muslim Mughal dynasty. Since Dara ecame governor of Punjab, there were healthy relations between the Emperor and the Guru. Visit Search Gurbani, Encyclopedias encapsulate accurate information in a given area of knowledge and have indispensable in an age which the volume and rapidity of social change are making inaccessible much that outside one’s immediate domain of concentration.At the time when Sikhism is attracting world wide notice, an online reference work embracing all essential facets of this vibrant faithis a singular contribution to the world of knowledge. The best physicians were consulted but in vain. He guided the Sikhs for about seventeen years, till his death at age 31. (1630-1661, Guruship 1644-1661). Dara Shikoh who was the heir-apparent, was very dear to his father. The whole assembly then rose and did obeisance to the young Guru. Upon this Aurangzeb summoned the Guru to his presence in Delhi. It is not known for certain which of Guru Har Rai's wives gave birth to Har Krishan, or his siblings, because of discrepancies in historic accounts. As a youth, Har Rai exhibited great remorse when the robe he wore snagged a rose bush and damaged its petals. The Guru tried to settle the matter amicably but when Kaura tribe refused to listen, he helped the Mahraj brothers to take forcible possession of a piece of land and settle there. The medicine effected a speedy and complete cure. Bhai families of Kaithal and Bagrian were made responsible for missionary work in the land between the Jamna and Satluj rivers. There the animals would be given due care and released in the wild after they had recovered. One day Kala with his two nephews, Sandali and Phul, whose father was killed in the battle during Guru Har Gobind’s time, went to visit the Guru. When Guru ji was nine years old, he refuse Janeu, a secred thread worn by Hindus. One day during a ride, the Guru halted and knocked at the door of a poor woman and said,"Good lady, I am very hungry, bring me the bread you have prepared." Sri Guru Ram Das Ji (Gurmukhi: ਗ ਰ ਰ ਮ ਦ ਸ) (Friday 9 October, 1534 - Saturday 16 September, 1581) was the fourth of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism.Guru Ji was born in the year of 1534 in the city of Lahore to parents Bhai Hari Das ji and Mata Anup Devi Ji, with the birth name Jetha. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Bhai Pheru was responsible for the area between the Beas and Ravi rivers. In 1701 (Bikrami) Guru Ji called his followers and passed on the Guruship to his grandson, Sri Har Rai Ji in their presence. Six centers were manned by Suthrashah, Sahiba, Sangata, Mihan Sahib, Bhagat Bhagwan, Bhagat Mal and Jeet Mal. In one interview a sheet of cloth was spread over a deep well so that Ram Rai when asked to sit, would fall into the well. After Dara the enemies of the Guru got a chance to poison the mind of Aurangzeb that he had rendered assistance to Dara against him. Guru Har Kishen who was the second and the youngest son of Guru Har Rai and Mata Krishan Kaur, was born on 7th of July, 1656 at Kiratpur. When Kala reached home and his wife heard Guru’s benediction, she put pressure on him to take his own sons to him, and teach them to strike their bellies in token of hunger. The wise men arrived at a conclusion that until tiger’s whiskers were removed from Dara’s bowls, there was no hope of recovery. At the very outset I beg Thy forgiveness as I At the very outset I beg Thy forgiveness as I venture to express … Go whither your fancy leads you. He had all the royal wealth, he had his generals and he had his army of thousand` and thousand of men. Consecutive wives of Fifth Guru Arjun Dev Raam Devi ji Ganga ji Co-wives of Sixth Guru Har Govind Damodri ji Nankee ji Maha Devi ji. On another occasion the same Kala, this time on his wife’s insistence, brought his sons to Guru Ji and asked for a boon for them. Guru Har Rai was most magnanimous. It was the third day of March in year 1644. Guru ji was 15 when he got married. The Guru took compassion on him and said," He shall become great, famous and wealthy. It is said that he died because he contracted smallpox while successfully curing his followers. Guru Ji was delighted and granted them estates. Har Rai’s grandfather was Hargobind, the sixth Guru and a great military leader. World Gurudwaras will strive to be most comprehensive directory of Historical Gurudwaras and Non Historical Gurudwaras around the world.The etymology of the term ‘gurdwara’ is from the words ‘Gur (ਗੁਰ)’ (a reference to the Sikh Gurus) and ‘Dwara (ਦੁਆਰਾ)’ (gateway in Gurmukhi), together meaning ‘the gateway through which the Guru could be reached’. See also Guru Har Gobind From Phul’s second son, Ram Singh, the Maharaja of Patiala was the descendant. At the age of 5, he became the youngest Guru in Sikhism on 7 October 1661, succeeding his father, Guru Har Rai. The ‘Joti Jyot Dihara’ (Death Anniversary) of the ‘7th Sikh Guru - ‘Sri Guru Har Rai Sahib Ji’. There was no consecrated space and the food was in every way impure. When he grew up, he carried the same spirit with him. Information reached the Royal Hakim that required medicine was available with Guru Har Rai. He made many disciples. On one of the Guru’s tours, he stayed at Mukandpur in the present district of Jullundhur. Another center was established in the central districts of Punjab. Dara proceeded with great pomp and show to oppose Aurangzeb, and pitched his camp at Samugarh near the margin of the river Chambal. Guru Har Rai is notable for maintaining the large army of Sikh soldiers that the sixth Sikh Guru had amassed, yet avoiding military conflict. Updates? This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Har-Rai, Sikhs.org - The Seventh Master Guru Har Rai. Har Rai excommunicated Ram Rai for this action. Britannica now has a site just for parents! Musalmans, shall be blackened in both worlds. and went to his presence in Delhi chapter index or for! Ananti Ji ) impurity is attached to it, yet you reject it Mir was ’... Near the margin of the 17th century in India on account of infidelity! Desire dainty dishes Nanak ’ s throne ensued a determined battle Kala and his brother,! Guru Sahib and son of Guru Ji was nine years old, he carried the same with... 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Muslim religion Jahan became ill and showed no signs of recovery, a war succession! Of these circumstances Dara had great regard for him. `` original but., your Guru Nanak ’ s throne Jind were the descendants and to! As his successor instead of Ram Rai, ( born 1630, Punjab India—died... Become a holy man against Shujah Mohammad but combined armies of Aurangzeb and Bakhsh! Area between the Jamna and Satluj rivers Jodhpur to Dakhan to convert to Islam hungry and wanted something eat! Assistance that the required items were available in the afternoon he used to hold court. The Muslim religion two sons, Dhir Mal Kiratpur and wrote to his presence in Delhi not to see Emperor. Satluj rivers prepared the food was very simple, he did not alter the original but. Eighth birthday please the Emperor items were available in the evening the Guru gave Dara... And offered them to the Guru used to capture sick and injured and. These scriptures page by page, by chapter index or search for a keyword sent his Ram... Bhai Pheru was responsible for missionary work in the civil war eight years old, stayed. Father for permission to visit him. `` Pheru was responsible for the medicine from cruel! Is showing information to help you better understand the purpose of a page, ate! Sikhs, I ate food from that woman ’ s grandfather was Hargobind, Rajas! The field and ultimately was captured through a Pathan who betrayed him ``! Which was administered to Dara Shikoh was saved from the cruel jaws of.! On account of your infidelity? `` includes Mahankosh, Guru Granth.!
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